The municipality of Arayat has a total population of 133,492 as reported in the 2015 census (Philippine Statistical Authority). The number accounts for 0.06% of the provincial total population. Table 1 identifies the population and population densities of the barangays in Arayat during the past three years (2007, 2010, and 2015). In 2010, population figures in 11 barangays decreased from the previous census. No significant changes have been observed in the population growth of all barangays. In 2015, Arayat had a total population of 133,492.
|La Paz (Turu)||752||876||1,059|
|San Agustin Norte||3,220||3,495||3,593|
|San Agustin Sur||1,436||1,619||1,772|
|San Jose Mesulo||4,984||4,841||5,004|
|San Juan Bano||8,159||7,572||9,065|
|San Roque Bitas||4,849||5,051||5,389|
|Cupang (Santa Lucia)||3,264||3,335||3,763|
|Matamo (Santa Lucia)||2,608||2,982||3,554|
|Santo Niño Tabuan||2,277||2,303||2,725|
Source: National Statistics Office for 2007 and 2010 population, Philippine Statistical Authority for 2015 population
Table 2 presents the annual population growth rate of Arayat based on its population data from 2007 to 2015. Arayat had a growth rate of 0.743% from the 2007-2010 population data while the APGR from the data of 2010-2015 increased to 1.907%. Using the growth rate of 1.907 and the exponential growth rate method, the projected population of Arayat by 2026 is estimated to be 164,518.
Source: * National Statistics Office (NSO) and ** Philippine Statistical Authority
Arayat is located in the northern-eastern portion of Pampanga. It is bounded on the north by Magalang, Candaba and Sta. Ana on the south, Mexico on the west and east by Cabiao, Nueva Ecija. The Mount Arayat national park lies on the north and is formed by the municipalities of Arayat and Magalang.
Map 1. Pampanga Provincial Map
Territorial Jurisdiction and Barangay Subdivision
Arayat has a total land area of 17,602 hectares or 176.02 sq. km. and ranks as sixth largest among the cities and municipalities in Pampanga. The municipality of Arayat
is composed of 30 barangays: Arenas, Baliti, Batasan, Buensuceso, Camba, Candating, Cupang, Gatiawin, Guemasan, La Paz Turu, Lacmit, Lacquios, Mangga Cacutud, Mapalad, Matamo, Panlinlang, Paralaya, Plazang Luma, Poblacion, San Agustin Norte, San Agustin Sur, San Antonio, San Jose Mesulo, San Juan Bano, San Mateo, San Nicolas, San Roque Bitas, Sto. Nino Tabuan, Suclayin, and Telepayong. La Paz Turu, San Juan Bano, and Suclayin are the barangays having the largest land areas with estimated 3,151 hectares, 1,549 hectares, and 1,377 hectares respectively. The barangays with small land areas consist of Buensuceso, Paralaya and Poblacion with an estimated 169 hectares, 36 hectares, 14.7 hectares respectively.
Map 2. Administrative Map
The different geo-physical maps for development, as well as hazard, vulnerability, exposure and risk maps from the Climate and Disaster Risk Assessment show the physical features and environmental condition of Arayat.
Map 3: Elevation Map
Map 4: Slope Map
Map 5: River Map
Arayat is a 1st Class municipality in the Province of Pampanga with 30 barangays, and a total land area of 17,602 has or 176.02 sq. km. The Central business district of Arayat is the Barangay Poblacion where major institutional and industry centers are located.
The existing general land use of Arayat (2016) is distributed as follows:
|Existing General Land Use Distribution of Arayat, Pampanga|
|Land Use||Existing Area|
|Irrigated Land-Protected Agri-Land||5,008.82||28.46|
|Parks and Recreation||12.99||0.07|
|NIPAS Protected Area (Multiple Use Zone)||2,591.18||14.72|
|NIPAS Protected Area (Strict Protection Zone)||1,021.5||5.80|
|Utilities, Transportation and Services||176.13||1|
Source: MPDC, GIS
Map 6: Existing Land Use Map
The road network of arayat consists of 176 hectares or 1% of the total land area of Arayat. The detailed listing of provincial, municipal, and barangay road networks are shown in the sectoral studies.
Map 7: Road Map
Arayat’s existing institutional land use area is approximately 37.59 ha or 0.21% of the total land area. Institutional areas constitute buildings for social services such as the municipal hall, barangay halls, schools and other institutional support buildings.
The most predominant land use in Arayat is agriculture. The existing agricultural production land in the municipality is around 6,499.61 hectares or 36.92% of the total land area. The irrigated lands (protected agri-land), on the other hand, comprise of 5,008.82 hectares or 28.46 %. It is augmented by agri-industrial land use with 47.68 ha or 0.27% of the total land area of Arayat.
The total of power circuits in Arayat is 332.818 kilometers with a capacity of 10MVA and has a present load of 81%., in which data is sourced from Pampanga I Electric Cooperative, Arayat Area Office. For water, there are seven sources of water in the municipality according to the latest National Household Targeting System (NHTS): individually used faucets (330), shared faucets (501), individually used tube or piped wells (2056), shared tube or piped wells (5546), dug wells (136), spring, river, or stream (137), and collected rainfall (2).
As per Solid Waste Management Plan, waste segregation is partially being done (only the recyclables that can be sold) in some barangays. MENRO is responsible in the collection of wastes of 28 barangays. Collection is done on regular basis. The final sorting and segregation is done at the Material Recovery Facility. Residual and other wastes are disposed in the sanitary landfill at Barangay. Kalangitan, Capaz, Tarlac, operated by the Metro Clark Waste Management Corporation.
Arayat’s economic structure is divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary sector. The primary sector includes agricultural activities such as crop production and livestock/poultry activities. The secondary sector on the other hand covers business establishments and financial institutions. Tourism is the primary economic activity for the tertiary sector, which is utilized by the Mt. Arayat National Park. The detailed structure for economic activities is seen on the sectoral studies.
In this chapter, the municipality’s potentials and constraints for development are identified and assessed so that they can serve as reference for the formulation of plans and programs of the local government. The potentials are necessary bases of different development goals and objectives. The constraints, on the other hand, hinder development; thus, they should be addressed to mitigate their impacts on the municipal development goals.
Flooding, caused by tropical cyclones that bring heavy rainfall, is a perennial problem in low-lying areas in Arayat. Flood prone areas in the municipality are those along the adjacent rivers and major tributaries that are unable to contain large amount of rainfall. The hazard is made even worse by the heavy siltation of waterways resulting in their limited capacity to handle heavy flash flood water flow from the rain catchment areas.
When the banks of rivers overflow, low lying barangays in Arayat such as Candating, Sto. Nino Tabuan, Cacutud, San Mateo and Cupang are affected. Damage to properties and loss of profit from agricultural activities are some of the problems encountered by the residents in those areas. A good environmental management plan is necessary to address the natural hazards and mitigate their impacts.
A common problem in Arayat is improper disposal of solid and liquid wastes, evidenced by the usual practice of throwing garbage in the rivers, that results in water pollution and water quality degradation. In addition, the number of Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs) in the municipality currently falls short of the national standard prescribed by law (RA 9003), i.e., one MRF per barangay. The municipality also lacks a unified sewerage system in its urban area and its adjoining barangays.
The possible unplanned development and conversion of certain areas in Arayat can have damaging effects on water resources quality and land productivity. Since the municipality is agri-based, the preservation and proper management of lands and water should be given close attention. The municipality must protect its natural environment from unplanned and ecologically unsound development.
Due to lack of an environmental baseline database, including an inventory and assessment of the quality of air and water, minerals and flora and fauna, fully comprehending the current environmental state of the municipality is difficult, although the stakeholders gave a good assessment of the water resource quality. Proper environmental planning and management will be facilitated if the baseline information are available.
Arayat has many agricultural areas in Barangays Arenas, Baliti, Batasan, Buensuceso, Candating, Gatiawin, Guemasan, La Paz (Turu), Lacmit, Lacquios, Mangga-Cacutud, Mapalad, Palinlang, Paralaya, Plazang Luma, San Agustin Norte, San Agustin Sur, San Antonio, San Jose Mesulo, San Juan Bano, San Mateo, San Nicolas, San Roque Bitas, Cupang (Santa Lucia), Matamo (Santa Lucia), Santo Niño, Tabuan, Suclayin, Telapayong, and Kaledian (Camba) where forest lands are also found. Besides being endowed with fertile agricultural lands, the municipality is also home to Mount Arayat National Park, a twin-peak dormant stratovolcano mountain.
Air pollution is not much of a problem in the municipality since there is no major air pollutive industry operating in the locality. This is not to mention the fresh air coming from the mountain’s lush vegetation.
There is a need to update the municipality’s data bank to establish empirical bases for the development plans of its various sectors (i.e., social, economic, environmental, infrastructure and institutional).
There is a need to augment the current workforce by hiring more personnel, such as a nutritionist, an environmental officer, an information technology officer, etc.). The local government should also enhance and develop the skills of its personnel through various management and technical training to enable them to adapt to the constantly changing environment (locally and globally).
The municipality of Arayat is a first class municipality that is dependent on its share of the national government’s Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA). This limitation is a big hindrance to development. Income generation can be improved if the local government will aggressively institute various fiscal management reform programs, such as: vigorous tax collection campaigns, fiscal incentives to induce local investments, cash flow management, etc.
Majority of the plans and programs instituted by Honorable Mayor Emmanuel Alejandrino are fully supported by the Planning and Development Office and by the different division heads and barangay officials. The various NGOs and POs are also actively involved in the municipal planning processes through their representatives who are members of the Local Development Council. Given this support, the LGU’s implementation of its programs and realization of its plans can be easily achieved.
The local government of Arayat has so far displayed a willingness to enter into partnerships with national government agencies (implementation of national government programs), foreign-funding institutions (infrastructure development), and the academe and experts (creation of local development plans). Its openness to such mutual endeavors shows that the local government has been able to assess its weaknesses and at the same time has managed to find solutions to address such deficiencies.
Aside from updating its tax map and increasing its collection efficiency, the Local Finance Committee should come up with different means and strategies to increase the income of the LGU. Self-reliance must be a primary objective to sustain the growth and development of the municipality.
There are no colleges/universities or leading vocational schools in Arayat. The value of educational institutions to meet the demand of development has to be underscored. Knowledge must be accessible to equip the municipality’s human resources and make them ready for technological and economic advancement. Arayat should therefore start considering the establishment of local schools.
Although dropout and repetition rates have generally decreased, there are still schools in certain barangays that have not attained the best score. In AY 2015-2016, all barangays in Arayat District have percentages of repetition rates with Mapalad(8%), and Batasan(6.21%) and Tabuan(6.10%) having the highest repetition rates. For dropout rates, only 4 barangays have these rates in the East district, with Tabuan at the highest (1.50%). For Arayat West, all barangays have repetition rates with Plaza Luma and Mesulo having the highest (13.43% and 11.32% respectively). 7 barangays have dropout rates in the west district and Palinlang has the highest (1.84%).
Dropout and repetition rates are indicative of unsatisfactory performance either of students or teachers or even the education system itself; thus, schools have to do internal and external evaluation to address the problem.
Considering the DOH standard ratio, the number of health stations and personnel in the public health system of Arayat needs to be improved to attain the national requirements. Based on the latest data provided by the Municipal Health Office (MHO), Arayat has 25 barangay health centers for 30 barangays– which is below the standard of 1 health center per barangay. In terms of personnel, the RHUs of Arayat only have 3 doctors, 4 nurses, 17 midwives, and 3 sanitary inspectors.
Sanitary disposal of human waste is also a consideration since it can be a factor in reducing disease and mortality. According to the National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) report of the National Statistics Office (NSO), three (3) in five (5) households in the Philippines have a private flush toilet. Toilets that flush into a septic tank are much more common in urban areas than in rural areas where pit latrines are more common. Some people in Pampanga, including Arayat, still do not have an access to sanitary toilet facilities.
Lack of patrolling personnel is observed in Arayat if standard for protective services, namely at least 1 police officer to serve 1000 people, is taken into account. Arayat has 1 police officer for every 3,279 population.
The Arayat Fire Station employs 13 firefighters. The fire station utilizes two fire trucks. Similar to the situation of the police force in the municipality, the number of fire fighters is also inadequate.
There is a total of 1,797 informal settlers in the municipality. The barangays with the largest number of informal settlers are Cacutud (364), San Mateo (247), and Candating (154). This problem in the housing sector calls for immediate solution.
Public cemeteries (the Municipal Cemetery and Catholic Cemetery) are both congested. To allot more public lands for this particular need is quite urgent, considering those who cannot afford to buy lots in private cemeteries.
Vast tracts of land are underutilized in Arayat. Improvement of current social infrastructure, particularly housing and health services, should be easily realized because of these available lands. The need to have more public cemeteries can also be addressed by considering the potential use of these spaces.
The increasing number of motor vehicles creates poor traffic movement in the municipality, particularly in the Poblacion area. Sidewalks and some parts of the roads are being utilized as temporary terminals and parking spaces for both private cars and public tricycles. Some portions of the National Road are being widened in order to ease traffic.
Motor vehicles are the main means of transportation in the municipality. Tricyles (motorcycle with a sidecar) are the most common mode of transportation in Arayat because of low fare charges and numerous routes they can serve. They are also convenient means for commuting short distances and feeder trips such as between residential area, municipal roads and adjacent barangays. There are over a thousand registered public motorcycles in Arayat. However, temporary tricycle terminals are situated alongside the commercial roads, thus causing traffic congestion especially during peak hours.
According to the NHTS, there are a number of households who still do not have their own faucets or tube/piped wells. Households with shared faucets are 501, while those with shared tube or piped wells are 5546. Other sources for water include dug wells (136), spring, river, or stream (137), and collected rainfall (2).
A huge percentage of roads in Arayat are made of concrete and are in good condition, thus providing ease in terms of mobility, a prerequisite for economic and social development. Good roads reflect proper management; they are a plus factor in the life of a community.
Poverty incidence is the proportion of population whose annual per capita income falls below the per annual per capita poverty threshold to the total number of population (NSCB).
The annual per capita poverty threshold of the province of Pampanga increased in a span of three years. Region III fared better than other regions in the Philippines by ranking third lowest (12%) in poverty incidence in a 2009 survey. The poverty incidence of Arayat is .3003%.
Arayat has crop production as its main source of economic activities in the primary sector. Twenty eight (28) barangays in Arayat have contributed an average of 5,174 hectares land for irrigated rice production yielding an average of 793.37 metric tons of irrigated rice crops from 2011 to 2015. Other crops include corn and vegetables. The vast agricultural lands that sustain food production is one reason for Pampanga’s low poverty incidence.
Arayat, in particular, has many areas with fertile soil that produce crops abundantly. To supplement their production, farmers may consider the processing of their produce. This diversification could be the start of a new economic activity in Arayat.
The type of business or trade found in the municipality varies from retail trades, banks, and service such as recreational and personal services. At present, there are 1,117 business establishments registered in the municipality.
Arayat has the Minor Central Business District found in the Poblacion as its shopping and service area, with the market as the main feature, complemented by shops and offices as well as recreational and transportation facilities.
With its popular and majestic mountain, Arayat can be a tourism hub of Pampanga. No less than then President Manuel L. Quezon promoted and developed Arayat by putting up recreational facilities, swimming pools, living quarters and nursery at the base of the mountain, which is now called the Mount Arayat National Park. It has earned recognition as the oldest National Park in the country.
Mt. Arayat is the famous landmark and symbol of the entire province of Pampanga. Its being associated with the rich culture and history of the Kapampangans makes it an object of interest among tourists.
Besides the mountain, there are other significant heritage structures such as—- that can be developed to serve as tourist destinations in Arayat.